Models


A model is a person who poses or displays for purposes of art, fashion, or other products and advertising.

Fashion Models


Fashion models are used mainly to promote apparel, accessories, and cosmetics. There are two types of fashion models: high fashion and commercial. High fashion modeling is an art form of fashion. The photographer photographs the model in artistic themes that relate to the clothing promoted. The model uses their face and body to express different emotions required. High fashion is typical for work on campaigns, collections and magazine editorials for high fashion designers. These models are featured in high fashion magazines such as Vogue, W,Vanity Fair and ELLE. Clothing designers traditionally show their new collections in an annual fashion show, for buyers, the fashion industry, and the general public. Fashion models walk the runway, and pose to display clothing. High fashion models have strong, unique and distinctive features. "Runway modeling," also known as catwalk modeling," is displaying fashion, and is generally performed by "high fashion models." According to Forbes, the attitude towards runway modeling has change. Top models don't even do runway. It is considered an internship process for the hundreds of anonymous girls who swarm the runways of New York, Paris and Milan each season. The days of $10,000 runway fees are over. New models are paid about $250 an hour on their first season.

Commercial modeling is less prestigious than high fashion (haute couture) modeling, but very well paid. There are different forms of commercial modeling: catalogue, cosmetics, commercial print, product, and swimsuit. Catalogue models vary from height and weight, compared to high fashion models. Unlike high fashion models, commercial models include plus-size models. The size of the model depends on the clothing. i.e. Plus sized models model for plus sized clothing. These models appear in catalogues. Cosmetics models model for makeup companies such as Revlon and Maybelline. Cosmetics models work for television commercials, magazine advertisements, newspaper advertisements, and billboards. Commercial print models promote clothing/products on billboards, buses, magazines and newspapers.

The Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34-24-34 inches (86-61-86 cm) and at least five feet eight inches (1.72 m) tall and 108 pounds on average. Currently, the height required to do fashion shows has increased. During the last fashion shows in Europe, the average height was 1.79 m, the average weight was 50kg, with bust between 85 to 90 cm, waist under 62 cm, and hips under 90 cm, to fit the 34/36 size of haute Couture prototypes. Average dimensions for a male model are a height of 180-187 cm (5'11"- 6'2") and a weight of 64-75 kg (140-165 lbs). Male models are also toned and fit as opposed to bulging with muscle.

Supermodels


Supermodels are highly paid top fashion models. These (usually female) celebrities appear on top fashion magazine covers, in catalogues and in fashion shows. Supermodels are paid over tens of thousands of dollars every day, even for a simple photo shoot (photography session).

The first model to pave the way for what would become the supermodel was Lisa Fonssagrives. The relationship between her image on over 200 Vogue covers and her name recognition led to the future importance of Vogue in shaping future supermodels. Fonssagrives at the height of her career could be both sophisticated and yet a kook, with which every American woman could identify. Her image appeared on cover of every fashion magazine during the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s from Town & Country, Life and Vogue to the original Vanity Fair.

Notable supermodels have included Twiggy, Gia Carangi, Tyra Banks, Gisele BŁndchen, Christie Brinkley, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Linda Evangelista, Heidi Klum, Elle Macpherson, Kate Moss, Beverly Peele, Claudia Schiffer, Karolina Kurkova, and Adriana Lima.

Notable male models include Tyson Beckford, Marcus Schenkenberg, Andrew Stetson, Massimiliano Neri, Mark Vanderloo, Alex Lundqvist, Michael Bergin, and Will Chalker.

Glamor Models


Glamor photography emphasizes the model rather than products, fashion or environment. Typically the sexuality of the model is emphasized in glamor photography, while in fashion photography the emphasis is on the clothes.

Early glamor modeling is often associated with "French postcards," small postcard-sized images that are sold by street vendors in France. During the early 1900ís, the pinup became popular. Pinups depicted scantily dressed women often in a playful pose seemingly surprised or startled by the viewer. The model would usually have an expression of delight which seemed to invite the viewer to come and play. Betty Grable was one of the most famous pinup model of all times; her pinup in a bathing suit was extremely popular amongst World War II soldiers. In December of 1953, Marilyn Monroe was featured in the first issue of Playboy magazine. Playboy became the first magazine which featured nude glamor photography and was targeted to the mainstream consumer. Glamor models became popular in the early 1990s, with the Hope Talmons and Dita Von Teese who created a gateway into the the modern neo models like Heidi Van Horn and Bernie Dexter.

Fitness Models


Fitness modeling centers on displaying an athletic and healthy physique. Fitness models resemble bodybuilders, but with less emphasis on muscle size. Their body weight is usually similar to (or slightly heavier than) fashion models, but they have a lower body fat percentage due to increased muscle mass relative to fat mass. They are usually very muscular.

Bikini Models


Bikini models are similar to fitness models with emphasis on a fit physique and the beauty of the female curves. Bikini models are usually tanned, toned and slim.

Fine Art Models


Photographers, painters, sculptors, and other artists hire models to pose for their art.

Body Part Models


Some modeling agencies have divisions which represent male and female models with particularly attractive body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote nail care products, leg models are useful for showcasing tights, and wrist models are used to showcase watches or bracelets.